by John McWhorter

extension of the public school dayreading below basic levelthisonly two percent of Italian and Polish immigrant kids didA Tree Grows in Brooklyn
Brutalizing is the only adjective for the public schools of that district around 1908 and 1909. Child psychology had not been heard of in Williamsburg in those days. ... Few teachers had the true vocation for their work. They taught because it was one of the few jobs open to them; because they had a long summer vacation; because they got a pension when they retired.